Rigging. Ballast. Ahoy, mateys! The upper horizontal timber framing a gunport, large square light, or gallery door. (p. 1138) Whipstaff (Fig. (p. 1120) These were called bilge keelsons or, in some British document, sister keelsons. G-3). Crossbeam (Fig. Lintle (Fig. A framing member mounted obliquely to the keel centerline in the ends of a vessel; canting provided better frame distribution and permitted more nearly rectangular cross sections of the timbers along the vessel’s incurving ends. See Draft marks. G-18). Hawse hole (Fig. G-11b). Rudder chains. Free tenon and two mortises (Fig. The longitudinal joint between two timbers or planks; the term usually refers to planking seams, the longitudinal juxtaposition of the edges of planks in the sides or decks, which were made watertight. A balcony projecting from the stern or quarter of a large ship. Many were "sold foreign" and many others simply were "lost without trace" or abandoned at sea. Brace (Fig. G-3). Timber head (Fig. A bracing timber used to prevent a mast step from shifting laterally; also, a curved or angular timber, similar to a breast hook and used for a similar purpose in the lower part of the stern. In English shipbuilding, the first ceiling plank next to the limber strake. G-14a, b, d). Knightheads (Figs. In pure shell-built hulls, outer planking was self-supporting and formed the primary structure; the framework fastened to it formed the secondary, or stiffening, structure. Belfries were usually mounted in the forecastle, although they sometimes appeared near the helm or mainmast; in some instances they were elaborate and ornate. Alternate definitions for a single entry are commonplace; this is the result of diffusion, varying localities, and technological progress. A term used frequently to describe the caulking of lapstrake (clinker-built) hulls. Taffrail [Tafferal] (Figs. G-18). Breadth. Overhang. The main timber of an ancient ram, projecting forward from its envelope of bow planks and timbers to reinforce the head of the ram. G-3). The name comes from their installed appearance as square patches in the sides of hulls. An iron bolt with a head on one end and a narrow slot at the other; secured by placing a washer over its protruding end and driving a flat wedge, called a forelock, into the slot. A wooden projection cut from the end of a timber or a separate wooden piece that was shaped to fit into a corresponding mortise. Also, a term used to designate the tip of an anchor palm. Timber heel (Fig. A horizontal piece of wood or metal fixed along the bottom of a rudder to protect the lower ends of the vertical rudder pieces and align the bottom of the rudder with the bottom of the false keel. Lodging knee [Lodge knee] (Figs. G-11b). (p. 1110) G-3, G-15d, G-15e, and G-15f). Bower. Wheel [Steering wheel] (Fig. Buttock lines. Variously, a short, raised foredeck, the forward part of the upper deck between the foremast and the stem, or the quarters below the foredeck. Scroll [Scroll head, Fiddlehead]. Also, the stock, or pole piece, of an oar or sweep. G-18). The deck immediately below the gundeck. Futtock plank. A timber, or assembly of timbers, that could be rotated about an axis to control the direction of a vessel underway. Side. Foot wale [Footwaleing] (Fig. G-9n). G-11). On ancient and early medieval ships, a thick strake of external planking that supported through-beams and other timbers penetrating the outer planking. Diagonal framing. When the term framed on ribbands was popular in the last few centuries of wooden shipbuilding, the ribbands were sometimes carefully arranged to represent certain rising and narrowing lines, from which planking and intermediate frame shapes were derived. (p. 1147) The longest and largest timber in the knee of the head. Deck hardware is everything mounted on the deck and includes the mast and boom that support the sails and the anchor. Deadwood knee (Fig. The dimension of an unmolded surface; the distance across an outer frame surface, the forward or after surface of a Cistern. The sailing terms for right and left come from a period when ships were steered by a steering board slung over right side of the boat. Boatswain's Chair frames, where “thick” and “wide” or “height” and “depth” become confusing. Rising wood was located between the apron or forward deadwood and the after deadwood, and was sometimes referred to as the central or keel deadwood. A long rack, usually attached to the inside of bulwarks, for holding belaying pins; a short pin rail was called a pin rack. Double framing (Fig. A spar extending the length of the bowsprit. Centerboards increased lateral resistance and therefore reduced leeway when tacking or sailing off the wind. Hercules SLR provides custom rigging and inspects, repairs and certifies rigging hardware. G-7f). Frame (Fig. Aloft - In the rigging of a sailing ship. cable. Midship frame (Fig. Fay. A small metal washer, used in clinker-built hulls, over which nail or rivet ends are flattened to lock the fastening. The outer extremity of a floor timber. Ripping iron (Fig. Chock (Figs. The part of a vessel between the quarterdeck and the forecastle. Timbers fastened to the top of the keel and notched into the bottom of the floor timbers to better secure those members to each other and give the proper rising to the floor timbers. Steering gear (Fig. Stanchion (Fig. The depth to which a hull is immersed; also, a drawing or plan. The heaviest mallets were also called beetles. G-3). RIGGING – The ropes are wires that control the sails and support the masts are called “rigging.” RUDDER – When you turn the wheel on a vessel, it moves the “rudder” and allows you to steer. A longitudinal crack or distortion in a timber, caused by sun, weather, or improper curing. G-3). Beam (Figs. Frames were sometimes called timbers or, erroneously, ribs (see Rib). Running Rigging Standing Rigging Mooring up This refers to all the moveable lines that are used to pull up and adjust the sails. It was similar to the top and butt method of planking and was intended to prevent shifting and increase the longitudinal strength of wales and other stress-bearing planks. The part of the knee of the head containing the gammoning hole. Chains or ropes attached to each side of the rudder and to the stern, used to prevent the loss of a rudder if it accidentally became unshipped. G-9). 5–19). Bilge boards. Steering devices: (a) a Mediterranean balanced quarter-rudder system, ca. A general term describing the longitudinal timbers fixed to the inside surfaces of the frames; the ceiling, other than the common ceiling. 5,898 mast rigging sailing ship stock photos are available royalty-free. A thin plank or strip of wood used to determine hull curvatures or to temporarily connect timbers during construction. Separate heel timbers on cogs and cog-like vessels are most frequently called hooks. A piece of straight-grained wood through which metal fastenings were driven. The former line was called the rise of floor line or the floor head line; the latter was known as the height of breadth line. A plane used in smoothing rabbets. G-8). Tenon (Figs. Figure G-16. A pin, or one of a pair of pins, set vertically in the gunwale to serve as the fulcrum for an oar. Ram. The practice of squaring the ends of deck planks where they terminated at the sides of the hull to avoid fine angles and subsequent splitting and distortion. (p. 1121) Rudder post. See also Sweep port. A wooden, stone, or metal crosspiece near the top of and perpendicular to the shank; it was designed to cant one of the arms so that its fluke dug into the bottom. G-3 and G-4). G-12e). The lower horizontal timber framing a gunport, large square light, or gallery door. A curved timber mounted on the inner surface of the apron; usually, the forward and upward extension of the keelson. However, many documents and drawings refer to the counter as the entire transverse area between the top of the sternpost and the rail or taffrail. A metal plate used to join two timbers externally. Cradle. ALTHOUGH the masts, yards, sails, blocks, and ropes, do altogether compose what may be called the RIGGING OF A SHIP, or VESSEL; yet the mode of applying the ropes to the several other parts, and combining the whole, so as to produce the means of navigating the vessel, is likewise termed, RIGGING A VESSEL; and of rigging, in this latter sense, we are now about to treat. G-12a). (Fig. G-14a). A reinforcement or platform, fitted on the side or deck of a vessel, on which an anchor or stack of anchors was stowed. Cutting-down line. (p. 1122) Fully Rigged Ship Pintle (Fig. G-8). Auxiliary keelsons bolted alongside the main keelson were known as sister (U.S.), side, auxiliary, or assistant keelsons. Running can cause the danger of an accidental jibe. G-18). Pillar (Fig. Strake [Streake]. Dunnage. G-8). Molded and sided dimensions are used because of the changing orientation of timbers, such as The strake of planking next to the keel; the lowest plank. Running (1) A point of sail where the boat has the wind coming from aft of the boat. Lining (Fig. G-3). Draft [Draught]. A strong projection on the bow of an ancient warship, usually sheathed in metal, used as a weapon to strike another vessel. They could span part of the bottom, turn of the bilge, or side. Planked so that the seams were smooth, or aligned, as opposed to clinker-built. A large metal staple used to attach the false keel to the keel. In later English documents, a sheer rail or one of the drift rails. After Body Also Aftership. They could be of identical size to, or smaller than, the main keelson. A large, horizontal knee fixed to the sides and stem to reinforce and hold them together. Wronghead [Runghead] (Fig. Chamfer [Beveled edge] (Fig. Headrails (Fig. The upper extremity of a hull timber. G-5, nos. Construction Interpretation Lyde I-I Cocca I-I Pinco I-I Friedrich Wilhelm I-I Aiax I-I Royal William I-I La Renommée I-I Derfflinger I-I ... Download Rigging Useful terms Reading the file requires Acrobat Reader. Planking strake [Strake, Streake]. Bulwark (Fig. Nib [Nibbing end] (Fig. Batten. G-15a–G-15c). G-18a). G-7d). Individual molds, probably representing futtocks of frame M, are numbered in Roman numerals. G-12). The outboard part of the lower hull where the bottom curved toward the side. A frame whose heel began at or near one side of the keel or deadwood and spanned part or all of that side of the hull; half-frames normally were used in pairs. An opening in a vessel’s side through which the looms of oars or sweeps passed. Either rectangular or L-shaped in cross-section, Included is the deck hardware and sailboat rigging terms. Tools. Pillars or posts set angularly in the hull to stiffen it; although used in pairs, they differed from cross pillars in that each brace occupied only one side of the hull. 400 BCE in Israel [after Rosloff, IJNA 20.3: 224]; (d) a Roman iron anchor cased in wood, with removable iron stock, from the first-century Nemi excavations [after Ucelli, fig. A protected area or building in a shipyard where the hull lines, from which the molds were produced, were drawn full size on a specially prepared flat surface. A term infrequently used to describe either the outer sternpost or the rudder stock. G-18). G-13d). A small nail or tack used to attach sheathing to a hull. An archaic term used to describe the upward sweep of bow and stern planking. G-12a). See also Timber head. See also Rising wood. A breast hook above the upper foredeck; usually, the highest breast hook. Spirketting (Fig. A process by which frames were aligned to assure that they were level and exactly perpendicular to the keel. (p. 1131). Situated near or on the outer side of a vessel; toward the outer side. 8). G-3). An athwartship beam in a Viking vessel. A small transverse member, often flexible and composed of one or several pieces, that stiffened the outer skin of a hull. A frame timber that crossed the keel and spanned the bottom; the central piece of a compound frame. Stern walk [Stern gallery]. Main piece (Fig. A strong vertical piece to which the tiller was fitted; on large, post-medieval vessels it was the main vertical timber of the rudder, and it was also known as the mainpiece. An athwartships hatch coaming. Horseshoe [Horseshoe clamp, Plate] (Figs. In general, the instructions on rigging provided by the manufacturers of model ship kits are fairly sparse. Ever since I was an avid model-maker as a kid, and now a game modeler as an adult, I have been fascinated by sailing ship models and ships in bottles. Ancient ships often had frames composed of lines of unconnected timbers; later ships usually had compound frames composed of floor timbers, futtocks, and top timbers. Head timber. See also Ribband carvel. The aftermost frames were the fashion pieces, which shaped the stern. Unlike treenails and pegs, dowels served an alignment function only, additional fastenings being necessary to prevent separation of the joint. A curved partial beam whose inboard end was scarfed or tenoned into the side of a deck beam and See Plate knee. Luting generally refers to caulking inserted between two hull members before they were assembled, as opposed to driven caulking (see Caulk). G-3). Thole [Tholepin]. When planks ended in a convex curvature, a vessel was said to have a round tuck; when the stern and counter lay perpendicular to the posts, the vessel was said to have a square tuck. Sails , Parts , Rigging. See Mortise-and-tenon joint. Another term for the stock of a quarter rudder. G-5, no. A more definitive designation for ancient ships is average frame spacing, the average of distances between frame centerlines at a common appropriate location, taken throughout the hull or hold. Alternate terms or spellings are listed in brackets after the entry. 270]; (e) a seventh-century Byzantine anchor from Yassi Ada, Turkey [after van Doorninck]; (f) an eleventh-century iron anchor from the wreck at Serçe Limani, Turkey [sketched from a replica by F. H. van Doorninck Jr.]; (g) a nineteenth-century iron anchor most commonly known as a fisherman’s anchor; the iron stock could be partially withdrawn and stored adjacent to the shank to save deck space; and (h) an eighteenth-century grapnel with five flukes. G-18b). G-5, no. That portion of an anchor where its arms joined the shank. Bracket. G-7c). The hawse pieces and knightheads. A convex block of wood into which an anchor bill could be fitted to prevent damage to the ship’s side when the anchor was hoisted. Sheer line. It was so named because it did not require caulking or precision joinery and therefore could be erected comparatively quickly. outboard end terminated at the shelf clamp. G-13a). Beetle (Fig. Lines [Hull lines]. The lower extremity of a hull timber. Bottom. Figure G-14. Redrawn from old notebook sketches. G-3). Athwartships. The practice was most common on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century British vessels and was employed to overcome design flaws due to inability to calculate metacentric height. [a] deck framing at the mainmast of a large warship: (1) frames; (2) hanging knee; (3) lodging knee; (4) packing piece; (5) deck beam; (6) carlings; (7) ledges; (8) beam arm; (9) deck beam scarf; (10) binding strake; (11) mast carling; (12) mast partner; and (13) chock; [b] typical deck framing and supporting features (after Stevens 1949: 29): (1) deck beam; (2) ledge; (3) carling; (4) deck planking; (5) hanging knee; (6) lodging knee; (7) shelf clamp; and (8) ceiling [quickwork]; [c] a common form of hatch construction; (1) deck planking; (2) head ledge; (3) hatch coaming; (4) carling; (5) hatch beam; (6) deck beam; (7) lodging knee [only one set shown]; and (8) half beam; [d] a typical mast partner for small merchant ship: the partners are (1) carlings and (2) chocks; (3) mast hole; (4) deck beam; and (5) half beam; [e] standing and plate knees: (1) standing knee; (2) frame; (3) outer planking; (4) plate knee; (5) deck beam; (6) shelf clamp; and (7) chock; [f] a method of terminating deck planks at the incurving sides of ships: (1) waterway; (2) nibbing strake [margin plank]; (3) nibbed end; and (4) deck plank. Tenon-built. The after part of the upper deck, from the mainmast to the poop. A transverse timber, or line or assembly of timbers, that described the body shape of a vessel and to which the planking and ceiling were fastened. Corresponding mortises were cut into each planking edge; a single hardwood tenon was inserted into the lower plank and the adjacent plank fitted over the protruding tenon. G-7a and G-7b). G-5). Shot locker (Fig. (p. 1113) The process of shaping outer frame surfaces with molds was known as beveling. A thick strake of planking, or a belt of thick planking strakes, located along the side of a vessel for the purpose of girding and stiffening the outer hull. Gammoning knee. Hawse block. A vertical timber attached to the forward surface of the sternpost to increase its strength, and in some cases, to support the transoms. G-7c). A wooden or iron plate that could be raised and lowered within a watertight housing called the trunk; the trunk was built over a slot in the keel or in the hull bottom next to the keel. A winged, or partition-like, stanchion used to support beams in Viking vessels. Drift. Ornamental molding used in place of a figurehead. By the seventeenth century, pairs of pillars, called cross pillars, were set diagonally across the hull to provide transverse strength. Really—click here to read our ‘Cranes’ Glossary. A rectangular opening in a vessel’s deck. A groove or cut made in a piece of timber in such a way that the edges of another piece could be fit into it to make a tight joint. A tapered wooden pin driven into a pre-drilled hole to fasten two members or lock a joint. Caulking material made from rope junk, old rope, and rope scraps; it was unwound, picked apart, and the fibers were rolled and soaked in pitch before being driven into planking seams. upper deck. Tools. 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Marks [ Draught marks, Load lines ] in brackets after the entry union two... Tiller, and upper decks as well main stempost or to temporarily connect timbers during.... Common ceiling of the planks around the fastenings thick longitudinal strakes of located... Prevent the rudder and skeg ( on the outer hull planking was too to. Or, erroneously, ribs ( see Rib ), often flexible and composed of planks! Support masts, etc. inserted into the pump well compartment where the ends of deck planks frame or timber. In clinker-built hulls, or pick interpreting the various spars used aboard ship ( 6 terms the... Additional keelson, or belts of strakes, to which ropes were secured overload condition high coolant... Plank to the poop the ends of pumps translation of an anchor where arms... Which ropes were secured the bottom curved toward the outer side of a vessel constructed so that it is for!, running from bow to the top of its hole shapes of the athwartship members fixed! 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Metal pin used to drive large bolts masts to harness the power of wind and propel vessel. Receive a tenon or gallery door hook-shaped head used for prying or moving timbers! A seventeenth-century term for the vessel ribbands, to prevent shifting of wales and other compass.! Timber bolted to the main keelson of a keel frequently referred to this timber a! Tops of the keel ’ s side drive treenails, wedges, etc. various components composing steering.

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