Harappa in western Punjab, near river Ravi 2. It must have been another port city though no docking facilities as at Lothal have been found. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati River. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Join The Discussion A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. 29. Other good examples of the skill in casting and bronze working are the little models of bullock carts and ikkas from Harappa and Chanhudaro. Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. The people lived a very comfortable life in well built houses and baths. If the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro will undoubtedly come up, but after that, India’s other ancient cities are often overlooked. 28. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. Surkotada is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. Knobbed pottery was ornamented on the outside with knobs. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization in northern Rajasthan state. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. It was essentially urban civilization. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Next Question > 3,000. Lanes were 1.8 mts wide and the roads were 3.6, 5.4 and 7.2 mts wide. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. A common script which remains undeciphered so far. Presence of cooking area, water reservoir in houses. The Harappan civilization was the first urban civilization of the Indian subcontinent. The numerical and decimal system was evolved here which made remarkable contributions towards Vedic mathematics. The earliest evidence of surgery was found from Kalibangan. It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. 5. Some Indus people buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial. According to Giosan et al. The seal immediately brings to our mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. Jha claims to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. Further evidence indicates that they continued well into the second millennium B.C. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) is located on the left bank of the Ravi. The decline of Harappan culture is difficult to explain. #Kalibangan#AncientHistory#IndusValley. An attempt has been made by Natwar Jha a palaeographist and Vedic scholar who says that script is syllabic that is no vowels are written. The Indus Valley script included over 400 symbols. The Aryans were more skilled at warfare and were powerful than the Harappans. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. Correct Option: C. • Indus Valley Civilization was located on the banks of the river Indus, particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river. The main sites like Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira are featured below with their respective specialities. It has given the substantiation of both pre-Harappan culture in the lower layer and Harappan Civilization in the upper layer. In the last phase of Mohenjodaro, men and women and children were massacred in the streets and houses. Harappa Civilization in Hindi. The arts of the Indus valley civilization came throughout the last half of 3000 BCE. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. It was surrounded by a massive brick wall probably as flood protection. Others attribute it to some kind of depression in the land which caused floods. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. Sir John Marshall says that nothing that we know of in other countries bears any resemblance in point of style to the models of rams, dogs or the intaglio engravings on the seals-the best of which are distinguished by a breadth of treatment and a feeling for line and plastic form that have hardly been surpassed in glyptic art. Harappan city with three divisions namely-citadel, middle town and lower town was at Dholavira. Proper Town planning in all Indus valley cites except few such as Kalibangan. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people. Some historians suggest that the first urban civilization came to an end around 1700 BC because its numerous small settlements grew beyond their natural limits leading to the mismanagement of natural resources. Weights and measures which were very accurately graded point to a very high degree of exchange. Kalibangan. The glazed Harappan pottery is the earliest example of its kind in the ancient world. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. were the most prominent cities of this civilization. This is contrary to the currently held view that all alphabetic writing descended from Phoenician in the late second millennium BC. Mohenjodaro is the largest of all the Indus cities and has a population estimated to between 41,000 and 35,000. • Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro,Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali. Incised ware is rare and the incised decoration was confined to the bases of the pans. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. Around 1750 BC Mohenjodaro and Harappa declined but the Harappan culture in the other cities faded out more gradually. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. Rangpur in Ahmedabad, near river Meedar 5. The unique feature of the site is its division into two parts as in other cities but three sections. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. Mohenjodaro in Sindh, near river Indus 3. For instance numerous seals have been discovered with inscriptions of the figures of animals and names in a script which is undecipherable. Chanhudaro Suktagendor Banawali Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. The Indus people gave to the world its earliest sites, its first urban civilization, its first town planning, its first architecture in stone and brick as protection against floods, its first example of sanitary engineering and drainage works. Sutkagendor in Baluchistan, near river Dashta 4. Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. But this theory is partly true. Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. Indus Valley Civilization GK / General Studies Test with multiple choice questions (MCQs) for UPSC, Civil Services, SSC, Banking, UPPSC, RPSC, KPSC, KAS, … INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION SITES So far nearly 1000 sites of nearly, mature and late phases of the Indus Civilization are known in the sub-continent. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid pattern, drainage system and elaborates fortification. Some of the evidence of the devastation by floods has been found at Mohenjodaro and Lothal but there is no such evidence in respect of other sites like Kalibangan. Located at the centre of the citadel it is remarkable for beautiful brick work. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization: So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira were some of the important sites of the Harappan civilization. Goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold and precious stones and metal workers made tools and implements in copper and bronze. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. Various causes have been suggested for this. Clay figures of the Mother Goddess as the symbol of fertility have been found- these were worshipped by the people. The plain ware is usually of red clay with or without a fine red slip. The great granary found here is largest building measuring 150 feet (length) x 50 feet (breadth). Also, it has come to be called the “Harappan Civilization” after the … He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. It was divided into 3 parts. ‎When one thinks of the world’s first cities, Sumer, Memphis, and Babylon are some of the first to come to mind. It was chiefly made and consists of both plain and painted ware and plain variety being more common. (c) Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. Semitic languages like Phoenician and Arabic use the syllabic system. Next Question > Quiz yourself on the Indus Valley civilization! Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. The same high authority goes farther and declares that the civilization of India is even superior to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization, Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization, History of India, History of Ancient India, Medieval History of India, Modern History of India, History Notes. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. To them also belong the credits for producing some of the earliest specimens of pottery. The painted pottery is of red and black colours. A small pot was discovered at Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot. Below the citadel in each city lay a town proper. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. The best specimen among the stone sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the steatite image of a bearded man wearing an ornamented robe. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. At that time the ASI was conducting excavations at Harappa, but they were unaware of the significance of the ruins. The artworks of the Indus valley civilization embrace Sculptures, seals, pottery, gold ornaments, terracotta models, etc. Kalibangan in Ganganagar, near river Ghaggar 6. ; It flourished in the Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) along the Indus River (hence called Indus Valley Civilization) and … The approach followed by Kinnier-Wilson is to find analogies between Harappan and Sumerian signs.S R Rao has produced a different attempt to read the script as containing a pre-Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-European family. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” was first used by John Marshall. Their rediscovery some 60 years later led to the excavations between 1921 and 1934 under the direction of M S Vats. It was not the Aryans who brought civilization to India which is rather untenable stand taken by Indo-Germanic scholars who seem to think that anything good in the world could have come from Aryan Race. 2. In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. The Mohenjodaro, the length of the Great Bath was 12 mtrs, breadth was 7mtrs and depth was 2.5 mtrs. Presence of a fortified citadel in almost all urban centres. See all quizzes › Go to topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used in Indus Valley writing? Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script is read. Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid system, drainage system and the like. Below it is an animal with a short thick tail which can be a fox according to S R Rao. Even the maritime trade relations with Central and West Asia were started by Harappan people. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. Most of the writing is from left to right and not the other way. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization. Several methods were used by people for the decoration of pottery. Kalibangan, ancient site of the Indus valley civilization, in northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India.The site contains both pre-Harappan and Harappan remains, and therein can be seen the transition between the two cultures.Although the pre-Harappan culture worked copper and produced pottery, it had no writing system, and its ruins lack the orderly layout and use of … It is distinguished by its exclusive fire altars and is considered as worlds earliest indicated ploughed field. Within the lower town there are some barrack like groups of single -roomed tenements at Mohenjodaro. The potters also worked in this part. Indus Valley Civilization Cities or City Map. Today I'm revisiting my trip to Kalibangan where I had the opportunity to view many of the structures and objects that contained so much history! Several sticks inscribed with measure marks have been discovered. 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