On 23 March Young announced that the time had come to implement the “Sebastopol” policy, a plan named after a strategic Russian retreat during the Crimean War. Historian Norman Furniss relates that although some of these appointees were basically honest and well-meaning, many were highly prejudiced against the Mormons even before they arrived in the territory, were woefully unqualified for their positions, and some were down-right reprobate. This activity led to a variety of other changes that fundamentally affected the cultural and political life of the state. While their husbands and fathers were in the army, Iowa women ran the farms and the stores. ", http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E0DE7DD133AE53BA15757C1A9659C946291D7CF, http://www.archive.org/details/historyofutahhowe26bancrich, "Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America", http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llej&fileName=010/llej010.db&recNum=276&itemLink=D?hlaw:2:./temp/~ammem_dTvI::%230100277&linkText=1, http://deila.dickinson.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=%2Fbuchan&CISOPTR=9149&REC=20&CISOBOX=utah, "The Utah expedition. The government never reimbursed the outfitters for these losses, and in 1860 they formed the Pony Express to earn a government mail contract to keep them from falling into bankruptcy. Share with: Link: Copy link. [44], The journals of members of the Ives expedition as well as the Mormons from Hamblin's group attest to the tension and war hysteria among both the US Army and the Mormons in these remote territories.[44]. The commission offered a free pardon to the Mormons for any acts incident to the conflict if they would submit to government authority. In February 1858, Senator Sam Houston of Texas stated that a war against the Mormons would be, On April 1, Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania declared that he would support a bill to authorize volunteers to fight in Utah and other parts of the frontier only because. The U.S. Congress created the Utah Territory as part of the Compromise of 1850. He reached Salt Lake City late in February, via Panama and California, and found the Mormon leadership ready for peace but doubtful about its feasibility. However, the rest of American society rejected polygamy with some even accusing the Mormons of gross immorality. While steaming upstream in the Explorer from the Colorado River Delta toward Fort Yuma in early January 1858, Ives received two hastily written dispatches from his commanding officer informing him of the outbreak of the Mormon War. Although Eastern editors continued to condemn the Mormons' religious beliefs and practices, they praised their heroism in the face of military threat. However, the President would not wait. Called 'Buchanan's Blunder' by elements of the national press,[3] the President was criticized for: However, the people of Utah lost much during the brief period of conflict. One consequence of the Utah War was the creation of the famous Pony Express. Some people feel that if the telephone was available then, maybe it would not have happened. Congress saw right through what President Buchanan was trying to do, and strongly opposed the Utah War. On December 31, 1857, several days before Ives's arrival at Fort Yuma, Johnson's party steamed upstream from Yuma aboard the steamer "General Jesup". And he had to deal with the "Utah problem." [34] Van Vliet found it impossible to persuade resentful Mormon leaders that the Army had peaceful intentions. The Utah War culminated a decade of rising hostility between Mormons and the federal government over issues ranging from governance and land … Library of Congress. There were some casualties, mostly non-Mormon civilians. During the winter both sides strengthened their forces. In the meantime, President Buchanan had come under considerable pressure from Congress to end the crisis. Young had generally adopted a policy of conversion and conciliation towards native tribes. History Company. This account was further supported by Territorial Chief Justice Kinney in reports to Washington, where he recited examples of what he believed to be Brigham Young's perversion of Utah's judicial system and further urged his removal from office and the establishment of a one-regiment U.S. Army garrison in the territory. In early October, Legion members burned down Fort Bridger lest it fall into the hands of the army. Share. Ives' party steamed up the Colorado River with frequent contact with Mojave and other natives who traded with them and were allowed to board their vessel. The two main countries that were so-called enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. The lives of all who took part in the war were changed deeply, for better or worse--and so were the lives of many who did not actually go to war but were affected indirectly. This activity led to a variety of other changes that fundamentally affected the cultural and political life of the state. No one was killed, but one Mormon took a bullet through his hat band, and one horse was grazed. The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition,[1] Utah Campaign,[2] Buchanan's Blunder,[3] the Mormon War,[4] or the Mormon Rebellion[5] was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. Early in 1858 exploring parties were sent to locate a place of refuge that Young believed to exist in the central Great Basin. Upon reaching Utah in early June, they found Young and his colleagues willing to accept forgiveness for past offenses in exchange for accepting Cumming and the establishment of an army garrison in the territory. He interviewed leaders and townspeople and "...attended Sunday services, heard emotional speeches, and saw the Saints raise their hands in a unanimous resolution to guard against any 'invader.'" MacKinnon, William P. "At Sword's Point, Part 1: A Documentary History of the Utah War to 1858" (Norman, Okla.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 2008). Originally President James Buchanan sent an expedition of 2500 soldiers to suppress what he termed to be a "rebellion" in the Territory. Utah War, in U.S. history, conflict between Mormons and the U.S. government. ...Very busy dealing out provisions to the public hands. Rather than engaging the enemy directly, Mormon strategy was one of hindering and weakening them. Harassing actions included burning three supply trains and driving hundreds of government cattle to the Great Salt Lake Valley. [55] In March 1863, Judge Kinney issued a writ against Young for violation of the Suppression of Polygamy Act. The lives of all who took part in the war were changed deeply, for better or worse--and so were the lives of many who did not actually go to war but were affected indirectly. (JD 5:168). Yes we did move the needle, yes we did grow the audience and yes we did get respect and recognition, but you want to keep doing that. The commissioners further assured that the government would not interfere with their religion. The territory's Organic Act held that the governor, federal judges, and other important territorial positions were to be filled by appointees chosen by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, but without any reference to the will of Utah's population—as was standard for all territorial administration. Kane and Cumming came to the Mormon capital in early April. Library of Congress. Though bloodshed was to be avoided, and the U.S. government also hoped that its purpose might be attained without the loss of life, preparations were made for war. The Nauvoo Legion on parade in Nauvoo, Illinois during the 1840s. The Mormons, fearful that the large U.S. military force had been sent to annihilate them[citation needed], made preparations for defense. With the United States slowly becoming more involved in the Great War in Europe, however, the Utah National Guard andcipated a new call to By the end of the war, most Iowa soldiers wanted to see an end to slavery. William P. MacKinnon, "Loose in the Stacks: A Half Century with the Utah War and Its Legacy". The author Chaim Potok, who was a chaplain in Korea, had as an assistant a Mormon boy from Utah, "a man whom I would have trusted with my life," he wrote. He and other leaders frequently spoke of putting homes to the torch and fleeing into the mountains rather than permitting their enemies to take over their property. American lawmakers were deeply suspicious about Mormonism, their government, and the practice of polygamy. Governor Brigham Young was appointed to office by President Millard Fillmore in 1850. "[35] However, marking a change from earlier pronouncements, Young declared that under threat from an approaching army he would not allow the new governor and federal officers to enter Utah. At the height of the tensions, on September 11, 1857, more than 120 California-bound settlers from Arkansas, Missouri and other states, including unarmed men, women and children, were killed in remote southwestern Utah by a group of local Mormon militiamen. The Mormon War, otherwise known as the Utah War or Mormon Rebellion, describes the violence surrounding an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the U.S. Army, which lasts from March 1857 to July 1858. Near the end of May, Buchanan offered a pardon to the inhabitants of Utah Territory for their “seditions and treasons” if they agreed to obey the federal government. The wars ended only after the federal government removed the Utes to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in the Uinta Basin during the late 1860s and early 1870s. The War Department was now considering launching a second front in Utah via the Colorado. failing to provide an adequate resupply train for the winter. 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